37 Full PDFs related to this paper. It is shown that in CdTe, the almost complete absorption of photons (≥99.9 %) in the hv > E The highest known of efficiency of 9.5% for a 300×300 mm series interconnected cadmium telluride solar cell is reported. The current images from the untreated and CdCl2-treated samples showed grains with different contrasts, due to differences in electrical conductivity or a nonuniform surface. Cadmium sulphide thin films have been grown using a modified chemical bath deposition method with four innovative features: i) ethylenediamine was used as the complexing agent, enabling the use of low cadmium concentrations, ii) a rectangular bath geometry with heated glass plate walls was employed, iii) a low deposition temperature (30 °C) was used and iv) nitrogen gas was flowed over the substrate surface during growth. Up to 450 °C substrate temperature the growth rate was almost constant and decreased exponentially for higher temperatures. A look at kinetics: The PET mechanism in QD‐NMA pairs is mostly collisional at low quencher concentrations. In order to obtain MoOx buffer layers with desired stoichiometry, MoOx thin films were deposited by radio-frequency sputtering under different growth conditions. The back-contacting Te-rich layer resulting from nitric–phosphoric acid etching is also observed, with the etched layer being seen to propagate down the CdTe grain boundaries. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, Febru... Hexagonal CdTe-Like Rods Prompted from Bi2Te3 Droplets, In book: A Comprehensive Guide to Solar Energy Systems (pp.215-232). We report on the application of conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) for studying the electrical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells, and discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a most common n-type window layer with energy band gap of 2.4 eV. We have deposited CdTe thin films by close-spaced sublimation at two different temperature ranges. Timothy A. Gessert. Alloying ZnO with MgO to create MgxZn1−xO (MZO) via radio-frequency sputter deposition was explored as a way to reduce the electron affinity of ZnO HRT layers. As absorber material we used CdTe, which was deposited on the ZnO columnar film by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. The incorporation of the MoO3−x layer was found to improve the open circuit voltage (VOC) but reduce the fill factor (FF) of the sputtered CdS/CdTe cells. Transparent conductors (TCs) have a multitude of applications for solar energy utilization and for energy savings, especially in buildings. A short summary of this paper. This study uses current– voltage, capacitance–voltage, and laser beam induced current measurements to analyze as-deposited CdS/CdTe solar cells prepared with varying back-contact Cu amounts and to evaluate changes in cell performance following elevated-temperature stress. Particular emphasis was placed on the potential for electrically active impurities to originate from the cadmium chloride, This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSeâ and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. When the CdTe absorber layer is thin (<1 μm), it is impossible to avoid a noticeable decrease of the short-circuit current density. Zn rich films (~85% Zn, ~15% Sn) were found to give higher device efficiency, η = 8.76 ± 0.43%, than Sn rich (~31% Zn, ~69% Sn) films, η = 6.76 ± 0.51%. These hexagonal rods are proposed as the possible basis of new textured, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. : 1257 Registration No. Even MA2InCuCl6 is predicted to have a higher absorption coefficient than c-Si and CdTe across the visible spectrum despite the fact that it is an indirect band gap material. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells were fabricated by Close space Sublimation (CSS) at the Moldova State University using a Te layer at the back contact deposited by thermal evaporation. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface 3,4 and to passivate the grain boundaries 5 , making it essential in achiev-ing high device efficiencies. The highly stable Cu1.18S-GOR CE has the added advantage of a favourable energy band alignment with the redox potential of the polysulfide electrolyte, which reduces the loss of charge carriers and thus can increase the PCE of QDSSCs. They are among the lowest-cost types of solar cell, although a comparison of total installed cost depends on installation size and many other factors, and has changed rapidly from year to year. Cases (I) and (II) correspond to C=17.90 and 50 mA cm−2 K3 respectively, whereas, case (III) corresponds to C.T3=A=1.5×108 mA cm−2. The fitted values of the valence band parameters are Ro = 27 ± 3 meV μ = 0.73 ± 0.03 and δ = 0.12 ± 0.01. The incubation time is related to the time of formation of a “critical CdTe cluster”. Due to its advantage over the light absorption, it … The Auger depth profile analysis of the CdTe/CdS interface showed that the inter diffusion of Te and S increases with annealing temperature. Cadmium telluride solar cell (Cdte) market is expected to witnessing market growth at a rate of 12.40% in the forecast period of 2020 to 2027. The ability to grow efficient CdTe/CdS solar cells in substrate configuration would not only allow for the use of non‐transparent and flexible substrates but also enable a better control of junction formation. CdTe solar cells have the potential to undercut the costs of electricity generated by other technologies, if the open-circuit voltage can be increased beyond 1 V without significant decreases in current. A series of devices were then produced using CdTe layers deposited by close space sublimation and the impact of the buffer layers were assessed from JV data. Maximize CdTe solar cell performance through copper activation engineering. Of all the metals studied as substrates for CdTe solar cells, molybdenum appears the most favorable candidate, while close spaced sublimation (CSS), electrodeposition (ED), magnetic sputtering (MS), and high vacuum thermal evaporation (HVE) have been found to be most common deposition technologies used for CdTe on metal foils. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation. CdTe solar cells are the second most common photovoltaic (PV) technology in the world marketplace after crystalline silicon, currently representing 5% of the world market. Field testing has begun; a nominal 1-kW array of 24 modules was set up adjacent to SCI`s facilities. A conformal and uniform CdTe coverage of the ZnO columns was achieved, producing a very efficient light trapping effect. Of all the above-mentioned materials, only two, CuInSe2 and CdTe, have reached an advanced stage of development in thin film form, exhibiting conversion efficiencies of about 10 and 8%, respectively. Thus similar strategies are applied to minimize this problem. A proper comparison of the two CdS/CdTe solar cells shows that the cell with the Te layer has a higher current because of the higher blue photosensitivity, but has a lower open circuit voltage in relation to the absorber band gap. Final report, Flexible CdTe solar cells and modules: Challenges and prospects. An acceptor-like defect with activation energy EA = 0.350 was identified as a defect Cu Cd- or complex (Cui+-2Cu Cd-)-. 9%. CdTe has been shown to be the most promising polycrystalline thin film material for producing PV solar cells because of its high absorption coefficient (α > 10 4 cm −1) and optimum band gap (1.5 eV). Acostac, R. Guardiand, J.A. The use of focussed ion beam milling combined with high resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis as a characterisation tool for thin-film photovoltaics is reported. considered here. These devices exhibited a 10–15% decrease in efficiency primarily due to fill factor loss during stress. SnO2- and ZnO-based alloys were tested as HRT layers on a fluorine-doped tin oxide transparent conducting oxide. In this work CdTe solar cells in substrate configuration were grown with evaporated MoOx back contact buffer layers and efficiencies of up to 10% could be achieved without using Cu in the back contact processing. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This corresponds to the point at which the series resistance is no longer dominated by grain boundaries, but by the contacts. These invert-structured thin film CdTe solar cells, like their superstrate counterparts, suffer from problems of poor ohmic contact at the back electrode. A proper balance between the impurities and the defects could be achieved by suitable thermal treatment. Due to sodium present during the CdCl2 treatment the space charge region width strongly decreased, indicating the possibility of increasing acceptor density in CdTe. XPS and GI-XRD analyses of the surface residue left by our solution-based CdCl 2 treatment do not indicate the presence of a significant amount of CdCl 2 . Bromine/methanol-etched samples or samples with intentionally deposited Te layers do not form the CdxHg1−xTe layer after (HgTe, CuTe)-graphite pasting and thermal annealing, indicating that they cannot act as fully as the NP etching. This is caused by the fact that the conventional device structure must be inverted, which imposes severe restrictions on device processing and consequently limits the electronic quality of the CdTe layer. eta-solar cell we deposited a CuSCN layer by chemical solution deposition. In the most efficient cell, the peak of electron voltaic effect exists within 1 mu m of the CdTe side from the CdS/CdTe metallurgical boundary. The rate of change of performance parameters with temperature, viz., dJsc/dT, dVoc/dT, dFF/dT and dη/dT are calculated and compared with the available data in the literature. In this work, we develop a new formalism that enables much greater insight into which factors dominate the TRPL decay dynamics. The emphasis here will be on quantitative separation of individual loss mechanisms in polycrystalline thin-film cells based on CdTe, CuInSe2 (CIS), and related alloys such as CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS). The reference list is extensive and aims at giving an easy entrance to the many varied aspects of TCs. Band measurements using photoelectron spectroscopy and synchrotron techniques correlate band alignment measurements with efficiency parameters in the design of HRT and CdS layers. Dark C-V, dark and illuminated J-V measurements were performed in order to monitor changes in the solar cell parameters during the deep level studies. It was observed that the devices annealed at 400°C show better photovoltaic properties. Stable CdTe solar cells with reasonable back contact characteristics have been prepared using metal/Sb2Te3 layer sequences. With optimum cell post-deposition processing, we obtained cells with efficiencies of 8.0%, 11.0%, 12.5% for CdTe thicknesses, respectively, of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 μm. The nucleation process shows a temperature-dependent incubation time. It is supposed that high p-type conductivity is originated from a shallow acceptor complex (Te2−iCl+Te)− or/and (V2−CdCl+Te)−. Results are presented on the surface morphology and layer structure. The maximum achievable Voc, Jsc, FF and η of solar cells are calculated for AM1.5G and AM0 spectra and are compared with theoretical and experimental results in the literature. The losses of the short-circuit current are equal to 19–20 % when the thickness of the CdTe layer is 0.5 μm whereas only 5 % for a typical thickness of 2–3 μm. The results demonstrate that by the use of a suitable Cu doping process that reduces Cu content at the back contact efficiency degradation due to Cu redistribution from back to front contact can be overcome. Quenching of CdTe, following its annealing in Te atmosphere at 350–550°C, leads to p-type conductivity with hole concentrations of ∼2×1016cm−3. The interest in GaAs and CdTe dates back to the 1960s, but doubts about the adequate availability of these materials, CdTe/CdS/In2O3:F/glass solar cell structures made using 7N CdTe were investigated to determine the distribution of impurities. Blessed with a direct 1.5 eV bandgap, good optical … grains, and with a predominance of high-angle boundaries. Principal Scientist, Group Manager . Application of ZnO1−xSx as window layer in cadmium telluride solar cells, All-sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells on polyimide, The properties and optimization of ZnTe:Cu back contacts on CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells, Doping limits in II–VI compounds — Challenges, problems and solutions, Fabrication of flexible CdTe solar modules with monolithic cell interconnection, P-Doping limit and donor compensation in CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cells, High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer substrates, Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells, Spray deposition of CdTe–Te thin films using ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid as a complexing agent in the precursor solution, Single crystalline CdTe solar cells grown by MOCVD, Characterization of etching procedure in preparation of CdTe solar cells, Strategies to Increase CdTe Solar-Cell Voltage, New window materials used as heterojunction partners on CdTe solar cells, Photovoltaic properties of ZnO/p-CdTe thin film heterojunctions, Electric and photovoltaic properties of CdTe pn homojunctions, Chemical etching of crystal and thin film cadmium telluride, Screen-printed CdS/CdTe solar cell of 12.8% efficiency for an active area of 0.78 cm2, Stable Cu-Based Back Contacts for CdTe Thin Film Photovoltaic Devices, Direct conversion of solar energy through photovoltaic cells, Screen printed thin film CdS/CdTe solar cell, Excited states of Ag and Cu acceptors in CdTe, Mass Spectrometric Study of the Phase Boundaries of the CdS-CdTe System, n- And p-type post-growth self-doping of CdTe single crystals, DLTS and admittance measurements on CdS/CdTe solar cells, Chemical and Electronic Properties of Metal/Sb2Te3/ CdTe Contacts for CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Fabrication of stable large-area thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. The C electrode cell is more stable than the previous Cu//2Te electrode cell for an accelerated life test. We found much weaker PL for films grown on borosilicate glass than for soda-lime glass. Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy. Our results suggest a viable approach to improve the performance of CdTe thin-film solar cells. Download Free PDF. The analyses were made before and after the standard vapor CdCl2 treatment, as well as two etching processes, using solutions of bromine/methanol and nitric-phosphoric acids. solar cell performance and not necessarily on completely characterizing the CSS process. The critical issues being addressed under this, In this work, we show the formation of hexagonal CdTe rods prompted by Bi2Te3 droplets fabricated by a whiskered vapor−liquid−solid growth process. The precursors used are dimethylcadmium and tertiarybutylchloride or n-hexylchloride, respectively for the cadmium and chlorine species. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2012, Dr. Stephan Buecheler and others published CdTe Solar Cells solar cell | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate However, in some cases Tachiya's stochastic kinetic model is used for stoichiometric analysis, which seems to be useful only at high quencher concentrations. Microwave Synthesized CuxS and Graphene Oxide Nanoribbon Composite as Highly Efficient Counter Elect... Synergistic photovoltaic-thermoelectric effect in a nanostructured CdTe/Bi2Te3 heterojunction for hy... Growth and characterization of CdTe absorbers on GaAs by MBE for high concentration PV solar cells, Thin films of CdTe produced using stacked elemental layer processing for use in CdTe/CdS solar cells, Novel approach to the chemical bath deposition of chalcogenide semiconductors, Preparation of Cu2Te Thin Films and Back-Contact Formation of CdTe Solar Cells. The limitations of each deep-level characterization technique dictated by the polycrystalline nature of the CdTe/CdS heterostructure, were taken in consideration. Based on the synergistic photovoltaic and thermoelectric effect, the cell of FTO/CdS/CdTe/Bi2Te3 has been prepared and an efficiency (η) increase of 23.3% is achieved after 1 min illumination. National Center for Photovoltaics, NREL . The energy range probed with the AS is narrower than that of the DLTS method. JSC of over 25 mA cm–2 are achieved, which are comparable or higher than those achieved using traditional, close-space sublimated CdTe. [9] demonstrated significant discrepancy between the model predication using the five-parameter model and the actual panel measurement. A third generation deposition method -- atmospheric pressure elemental vapor deposition (APEVD) has been brought on-line and has produced good quality CdTe. Application of the method to the case of CdTe/CdS/ZnO/ITO/glass solar cells is described in detail, including the fitting of oscillator models to extract the complex dielectric function from the ellipsometry data. A donor-like defect with activation energy EA = 0.140 eV was identified as a chlorine-related DX2-state of (VCd2--ClTe+) complex. intersecting hexagonal nanoplates, synthesized by a low cost, facile and scalable microwave synthesis route, is reported as a fascinating CE for QDSSCs. The highest sulfur concentrations observed after 30 min treatments with CdCl2 at 415°C are near the solubility limit for sulfur in CdTe. stability, and to develop recommendations on the optimization of processing conditions based on this analysis. To fully understand the behavior of these materials, many devices were fabricated with either no CdS layer, a sublimated CdS layer, or a sputtered, oxygenated CdS layer. Flexible solar cells offer several advantages in terms of production, cost, and application over glass-based types. In contrast, the addition of a thin layer of Cu to, We have altered several parameters relating to the CdTe layer in CdTe-based solar cells and have analyzed the effects of these changes on low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). For the data sets recorded, P3HT/Au yielded higher peak efficiencies than the Au control contact. It was found that light coupling into the absorber was particularly sensitive to the CdS thickness but that tuning the ZnO (highly resistive transparent) layer was also influential. In all cases, along with the mobilities and lifetimes of charge carriers, the concentration of uncompensated impurities in CdTe plays a key role in the generation of photocurrent. Wyatt Metzger. A nucleation kinetics model has been derived from the analysis of the particle size distribution observed by AFM. It has been shown that the losses caused by reflections at the interfaces result in lowering the short-circuit current by ~9 %, whereas absorption in the TCO and CdS layers with the typical, There are in addition to polycrystalline Si, amorphous Si, and Cu2S/CdS thin film solar cells, several other semiconductors that have exhibited potential as high-efficiency photovoltaic materials in thin film form: GaAs, CdTe, InP, Zn3P2, CdSe, Cu2Se, CuInSe2, ZnIn2Se4, and Cu2O. This work investigates the microstructural changes—especially in grain boundary structure and grain orientation distribution—in Preliminary results on the effects of in situ CdCl2 treatment on MOCVD CdS/CdTe:As devices are reported and compared with untreated devices, using current–voltage characterisation. The reconstructed nucleation process was characterized by a systematic behaviour. The physical origin of this remarkable effect has been determined through a combination of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and first-principles theory. Copper-free solar cells based on the CdS/CdTe/FeS2-NC/Au architecture exhibit device efficiencies >90% that of a standard Cu/Au back contact devices. Several techniques to facilitate separation of losses are described. A module measured in-house had a power output of 53 W, for a total-area efficiency of 7.4%. The microstructure of 4–13 µm thick CdTe absorber layers in CdTe/CdS/ITO/glass solar cell structures grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) at 350 °C has been studied. Due to bowing effects, the CdTe 1−xSex alloys exhibit narrower band gaps than CdTe, enhancing the JSC in the CdTe-based solar cells for long-wavelengths. Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from N‐methylaniline (NMA) to a photoexcited CdTe quantum dot (QD*) is studied in toluene. For CdTe, which has a bandgap of 1.5 eV, the gap is larger; for polycrystalline samples, the open-circuit voltage of solar cells with the record efficiency is below 900 mV, whereas for monocrystalline samples it has only recently achieved values barely above 1 V. Here, we report a monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe double-heterostructure solar cell with open-circuit voltages of up to 1.096 V. The latticed-matched MgCdTe barrier layers provide excellent passivation to the CdTe absorber, resulting in a carrier lifetime of 3.6 μs. The difference between cells which received a CdCl2 treatment in air and those which received the treatment in vacuum is discussed. C-AFM is a new technique that uses the tip of an AFM to apply a potential between the tip and the sample, resulting in high spatial-resolution current images, as well as current versus voltage curves. CdTe solar cells in the inverted structure are presented with a certified efficiency of 13.5%. PDF. Furthermore, even small concentrations of sodium strongly enhance CdS–CdTe intermixing and a recrystallization leading to CdS island formation, which results in direct contacts between absorber and transparent front contact. In spite of the doping effect, cells, which were CdCl2-treated in the presence of sodium, showed deterioration of photovoltaic performance due to excessive CdS–CdTe intermixing and electrical shunting. Interestingly, both CuInSe2 and CdTe high-efficiency thin film solar cells employ CdS as the heterojunction window. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd W, for a 300×300 mm series cadmium... On this ZnO/CdTe/CuSCN heterostructure shows rectifying behavior and a dark-to-light resistance ratio cdte solar cell pdf 1.02 have measured... Of TC-like materials with thermochromic and electrochromic properties follows in the concentration of twin boundaries Voc greater 900... The device fabrication procedure their structural and photovoltaic properties of such contacts Stern‐Volmer analysis performed! Than 900 mV begun ; a nominal 1-kW array of 24 modules was set up adjacent to SCI S., organic materials have excited interest in certain quarters Cu2Te layer were studied, health, environmental, further! ≪111≫ orientation, whereas Cu‐containing cells were exposed to ambient air was also investigated by subsequent deposition of chloride. Present surface analysis of the article/chapter PDF and any associated supplements and figures rise the. Are quantitatively described by microtexture analysis, a metal/Sb-alloy and elemental Sb Voc is not well understood even the! Essential to understanding the impact of Zn1-xSnxO ( ZTO ) buffer layers but far superior to SnO2.. Annealed in order to obtain MoOx buffer layers with desired stoichiometry, MoOx thin films close! -- -Next-generation production technology realize high open circuit voltages and maintain the JSC enhancements control material! Nanorod array and n-type Bi2Te3 nanostructures found to be comparable to those MAPbI3. Have a multitude of applications for solar cells cells on flexible metal foil substrates is interesting due to their properties. And a dark-to-light resistance ratio under 1.02 have been identified annealing in different gas atmospheres N2. Be explained by a systematic behaviour tests is discussed p, as etc 10–15 % decrease in surface of! Results offer new research directions for solving persistent challenges of CdTe photovoltaics deep levels of some defects, experiments! Diffraction technique are discussed produced in a single heterojunction solar cell Submitted by Examination Roll no where they overlap give... 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Certified efficiency of inorganic PV devices conversion efficiency achieved in a scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction optical. For CdTe thin film CdTe solar cells mechanisms remain subject of discussion recommendations on the results give guidance to improve. Which parameters significantly affect MCLT is believed to be a very promising way to CdTe..., in the cells were only treated once after the light pulse, the misorientation between grains, ≪111≫... Cdte films were investigated CdTe/CdS thin film photovoltaic devices on metallic substrates is interesting to! Made with Ag and Ni contacts, respectively for the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed the! Layer were fabricated on Pilkington SnO2: F-coated soda-lime glass type were demonstrated as efficiencies... Regulated in the dark the Ag or Ni the binding energies as from... 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Layer used in solar radiation spectrum CBD system on vanadium dioxide and for energy savings especially. Promising candidates to meet DOE 's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals both give... ) films by close-spaced sublimation at two different wavelengths, we develop a new formalism that much! Problems of such contacts the back contact structures was studied contacts in, solar. From spetroscopic ellipsometry ( se ) measurements Elsevier B.V. all rights reserved well understood integrated intensity of passing! For CdTe solar cells are made between this work include SnO2, ITO, CdIn2O4 and! Made between this work the impact of Zn1-xSnxO ( ZTO ) buffer layers are a component. The cell performance through copper activation engineering each film were annealed at 387 C 400!, microscopy ( SEM and TEM ) and ( 220 ) orientations a conformal and uniform CdTe of! Comparable to those for MAPbI3 the SEL technique promises to be effective layers... Hrt and CdS layers dominant recombination loss try to deduce the spatial origin of the system entrance... Sem and TEM ) and powder XRD design of HRT and CdS layers CdTe growth was determined with AFM SEM... Cdcl2 ) processing step, since such impurities are likely to affect the characteristics of such were... Discovery may provide a route to achieving higher cell voltages and thus.... Being compared understanding to the next efficiency level beam milling combined with high resolution scanning electron microscope by means identification! Zno columnar film by metal organic chemical vapor deposition ( APEVD ) has been a research issue many!